The Taxonomy of the Genus Casuarius

The defined & known living species and subspecies


Introduction

A total of forty-eight species and subspecies of the Cassowary have been described since the Ceram Cassowary was first seen by the Western World in 1597.
Although Rothschild concluded that the bird originally came from Ceram (Seram), on the grounds that “it is evident that of all the Moluccan islands only Ceram is inhabited by the Cassowary.”, it is by no means certain that this was the case.
Trading specimens of Casuarius, of all species, have probably been circulating for many hundreds, if not thousands, of years throughout South-East Asia. The Ceram Cassowary could just as well have come from the Aru Islands or the South-West of New Guinea, both of which have long established trading connections with the Spice Islands. During the 14th Century the Cassowary is known to have been an item of trade with the Chinese and the Ming Emperors exacted them as tribute.

This uncertainty about the place of origin casts a real shadow over the nomenclature and taxonomy of Cassowaries. Only a minority of specimens were taken first hand in the field by reputable sources. Even today, the decision as to which species or subspecies a specimen belongs to is taken based on morphological characteristics and the believed place of origin. Since little is known about morphological changes due to age or sexual development, frequently specimens were described while juvenile and many were supplied by sources which perhaps supplied inadequate nutrition, some defining criteria are questionable. Even where drawings exist for the Casuarius type specimens these rely upon the accuracy of the artist in reproduction and it is now accepted from studies of Casuarius casuarius johnsonii in Australia that there is a wide physical diversity among Cassowaries of the same subspecies, particularly with regard to helmet and wattle size and shape.

The advent of mDNA sequencing has opened up a new avenue for establishing relationships between Cassowary species and subspecies. Although mDNA will not be any help in determining geographical distribution it will be crucial in identifying the genetic relationship. This is not a quick process and is complicated by the limited availability of live birds, national restrictions on the collection and export of genetic material and the reluctance of museums to give samples from their specimens. Nevertheless, I have already obtained seven mDNA profiles from living Cassowaries and will be receiving nine museum samples in the near future. This is, of course, only a beginning as probably at least fifty profiles will be necessary to seriously judge the relationships.

The following listing of all the described Cassowaries does contain some of the mDNA profiles I already have and this listing will be updated when new information becomes available. It would appear that at least Casuarius casuarius and Casuarius unappendiculatus naturally hybridise and the notes below refer to this in the notes of the two species concerned. This being the case, mDNA studies will be additionally fraught with possible misinterpretations. At least for the next few years Cassowary relationships will remain an enigma.

Casuarius casuarius

Struthio casuarius
Casuarius galeatus
Casuarius australis
Casuarius bicarunculatus
Casuarius aruensis
Casuarius johnsonii
Casuarius beccari
Casuarius tricarunculatus
Casuarius altijugus
Casuarius salvadorii
Casuarius sclaterii
Casuarius casuarius intensus
Casuarius casuarius violicollis
Casuarius casuarius chimaera
Casuarius hagenbecki
Casuarius bistriatus
Casuarius casuarius hamiltoni
Casuarius casuarius lateralis
Casuarius bicarunculatus intermedius
Casuarius casuarius grandis

Casuarius bennetti

Casuarius bennetti bennetti
Casuarius papuanus
Casuarius picticollis
Casuarius westermanni
Casuarius edwardsi
Casuarius loriae
Casuarius picticollis hecki
Casuarius maculatus
Casuarius jamrachi
Casuarius roseigularis
Casuarius claudii
Casuarius keysseri
Casuarius foersteri
Casuarius goodfellowi
Casuarius rogersi
Casuarius bennetti shawmayeri

Casuarius unappendiculatus

Casuarius unappendiculatus
Casuarius kaupi
Casuarius occipitalis
Casuarius laglaizei
Casuarius philipi
Casuarius unappendiculatus aurantiacus
Casuarius unappendiculatus rufotinctus
Casuarius rothschildi
Casuarius doggetti
Casuarius unappendiculatus mitratus
Casuarius unappendiculatus suffusus
Casuarius unappendiculatus multicolor
Unless otherwise stated all illustrations are copyright of the Natural History Museum, London


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Linnaeus PlXI,VI

Struthio casuarius, Linnaeus 1758

Synonym: Casuarius casuarius casuarius

Ceram Cassowary

Described by: Carolus Linnaeus

Published in: Syst. Nat., 1758, p. 155 : Ceram

Collected by:

Place of origin/range: see Rothschild's opinion

Sex:

Age at death:

Specimen:

Current location of specimen:

Description


Linnaeus did not give a discription, but Rothschild did (Rothschild 1900 p. 114-115). "Adult. Bill long; casque large, not very high, and somewhat sloping backwards, compressed laterally, of a dark brownish horn-colour. Head and occiput Nile-blue, becoming darker on the upper part of the hind- neck. Lower two-thirds of hind-neck scarlet. Chin, throat, and fore- neck dark blue. On the lower fore-neck are two large lappet-shaped wattles, joined at their base, rugose, granulated, and of a deep pink colour. Naked lower sides of neck bluish purple anteriorly and bright scarlet posteriorly. Lores black; iris dark brown; legs brownish grey. Plumage black. Size medium. Total length about 1.50m, bill from gape 98mm, tarsus 250 to 275mm, claw of inner toe 70-78mm."

Note:
Keulemans
water colour by J. G. Keulemans
Sketch by J. G. Keulemans
Sketch of a young bird by J. G. Keulemans

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Enc. Meth., i, 1790, plate 4

Casuarius galeatus, Bonnaterre 1790

Synonym: Casuarius casuarius casuarius (Linnaeus, 1758)

Described by: Abbé Pierre Joseph Bonnaterre

Published in: Enc. Meth., i, 1790, p. 4, plate 4, f. 2.

Collected by:

Place of origin/range: Unknown

Sex:

Age at death:

Specimen:

Current location of specimen:

Description



Note:


Casuarius australis, Wall 1854

Synonym: Casuarius casuarius johnsoni (Muller 1866)

Described by: Wall,

Published in: Illustrated Sydney Herald, 3rd June 1854.

Collected by:

Place of origin/range: Cape York, Queensland.

Sex:

Age at death:

Specimen:

Current location of specimen: Specimen on which the type is based was shot near Cape York in 1848 (Gould, 1869, Pl. 70) but was lost in Weymouth Bay (Gould, 1857, p.271).

Description


No description.
Note: "Casuarius australis" was in any case pre-occupied by Casuarius australis, Shaw & Nodder, Nat. Misc., iii, 1792, Pl. 99 - an emu - see Rothschild, 1912, p. 52.

"Adult. Casque very high and massive, compressed laterally, deep brown; bill long and stout, black. Next to C. casuarius sclateri, the largest of the forms of Casuarius casuarius. Plumage black. Sides of head, occiput, and upper hind-neck pale greenish blue; lower hind-neck scarlet, running a little into the blue of upper portion. Chin, throat, and fore-neck deep indigo-blue. Lower naked sides of neck mixed red and blue, giving a purple hue. Two wattles on fore-neck very large, deep pinkish red, mottled with paler pink, blue at base." ( Rothschild 1900, p. 124).


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Gould, 1857, plate 129

Casuarius bennetti, Gould 1857

Synonym: Casuarius bennetti bennetti

Bennett's Cassowary or Dwarf Cassowary

Described by: John Gould

Published in: Proc. Zool. Soc., London, 1857, p. 269.

Collected by:

Place of origin/range: New Britain

Sex: Unsexed

Age at death: Adult

Specimen: Skeleton

Current location of specimen: Tring: BMNH 1864.7.2.2

Description

Described in life when immature.
"The hight of the bird is 3 feet to the top of the back, and 5 feet when standing erect; its colour is rufous mixed with black on the back and hinder portions of the body, and raven black about the neck and breast; the loose wavy skin of the neck is beautifully coloured with iridescent tints of bluish-purple, pink, and an occasional shade of green, quite different from the red and purple caruncles of the Casuarius galeatus; the feet and legs, which are very large and strong, are of a pale ash-colour, and exhibit a remarkable peculiarity in the extreme length of the claw of the inner toe on each foot, it being nearly three times the length which it obtains in the claws of the other toes; this bird also differs from C. galeatus in having a horny plate instead of a helmet-like protuberance on the top of his head, which callous plate has the character of and resembles mother of pearl darkened with black lead"
Obtained through G. Bennett by the ZSL May 17th 1857. Died in ZSL gardens in 1864 (Sclater, 1864, p. 271.)
Note: The cassowary was brought to England on the "Oberon" from New Britain (Neu-pommern) under Capt. Devlin.
Bennett published "A new species of Cassowary" in the Athenaeum, 1857, pp. 1551-1552.
While a population of Casuarius bennetti undoubtedly exists on mountainous New Britain, and has been there for some indeterminate time, it cannot have arrived there by natural means and the founder population must have been transported there by man (White, 1976).
The mDNA of Casuarius bennetti in the Genebank database does not refer to the New Britain nominate form, but to an individual from the population on the Bewani Mountains.

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Watercolour by J. G. Keulemans

Casuarius bicarunculatus, Sclater 1860

Synonym: Casuarius casuarius bicarunculatus (Sclater 1860 )

Described by: Philip Lutley Sclater

Published in: Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1860, p. 211.

Collected by:

Place of origin/range: Aru Islands

Sex: Unsexed

Age at death: Immature

Specimen: Unmounted skin

Current location of specimen: Tring: BMNH 1861.12.5.1

Description


Described in life. Died in the Gardens in Nov. 1861 (Sclater, 1869, p. 144).
"Adult. Plumage black; casque compressed at sides, not flattened at back, low and deep, horn-brown. Bill long, pointed, black. Head and occiput pale greenish blue. Upper part of hind-neck deeper blue, rest of hind-neck scarlet; fore-neck dark blue. On each side of the neck is a long pendent wattle, blue at base, deep pinkish red for the rest of the surface. Lower naked sides of neck deep blue."
Note:
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Sketch by J. G. Keulemans

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Casuarius unappendiculatus, Blyth 1860

Synonym: Casuarius unappendiculatus unappendiculatus (Blyth 1860)

Single-wattled Cassowary

Described by: Edward Blyth

Published in: Journ. As. Soc. Bengal., 1860, XXIX, p. 112

Collected by:

Place of origin/range: Salawatti Island and the opposite coast on the mainland of New Guinea

Sex:

Age at death:

Specimen:

Current location of specimen: None (perished).

Description


"Casuarius unappendiculatus, nobis, n. s., from its peculiarity of having but a single pendulous caruncle in front of the neck. Specimen apparently more than half grown, and much paler in colouring of its plumage than specimens of the same age of the common Casuarius galeatus, two fine examples of which are associated with it in the same paddock. In lieu of the two bright red caruncles of the latter, the new species has but a single small oblong or elongate oval yellow caruncle, and the bright colours of the naked portion of the neck are differently disposed. The cheeks and throat are smalt-blue, below which is a large wrinkled yellow space in front of the neck, terminating in front of the oval button-like caruncle, and its lower portion being continued round behind, while on the sides of the neck, the yellow naked portion is continued down to its base, the bordering feathers more or less covering and concealing this lateral stripe of unfeathered skin: on the hind-part of the neck the bare yellow skin is not tumous and corrugated as in the common Cassowary, where also this part is bright red. The casque is about equally developed at this age in the two species. The legs of the new species are smaller, from which I doubt if it attains to quite so large a size as the other."
Note:
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Sketch found in Leiden 2005

Casuarius kaupi, Rosenberg 1861

Synonym: Casuarius unappendiculatus unappendiculatus (Blyth 1860)

Kaup's Cassowary

Described by: C.B.H. von Rosenberg

Published in: Journ. Orn. IX, 1861, p. 44, also in Nat. Tijdschr. Ned. Ind., XXIII, 1861, p.43

Collected by: Rosenberg, but probably only his hunters or local villagers

Place of origin/range: Unknown for certain. Rosenberg visited Kalwal, Salawati, between July 26th and August 3rd, 1860. There is a marked similarity between Rosenberg's sketch below and the Leiden specimen no. 103626 collected by Bernstein in 1865 from Kalwal.

Sex: Unsexed

Age at death: Adult

Specimen:

Current location of specimen: Destroyed in 1944 bombing of Darmstadt: Martin Paeckert, Darmstadt Museum, 24.6.2005 (see note below).

Description


Description in Dutch is not translated yet.
Note: There is a plaster cast of head in Tring: BMNH 1863.12.15.41, illustrated below.

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Rosenberg sketch
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Tring 1863.12.15.41

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Casuarius aruensis, Schlegel 1866

Synonym: Casuarius casuarius aruensis (Schlegel 1866)

Described by: Hermann Schlegel

Published in: Ned. Tijdschr. Dierk. III, 1866, p. 347

Collected by: C. van Rosenberg

Place of origin/range: Wammer, Kobroor, Aru Islands

Sex: Female

Age at death: Immature

Specimen: Mounted standing

Current location of specimen: Naturalis, Leiden 87003.

Description



Note:
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Water colour by J. G. Keulemans
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Water colour by J. G. Keulemans

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C.c. johnsonii

Casuarius johnsonii, Müller 1866

Synonym: Casuarius casuarius johnsonii (Müller 1866)

Southern Cassowary

Described by: Dr. F. Müller

Published in: : Australasian, 15th December 1866. (reprinted) Proc. Zool. Soc. 1867, p.241

Collected by: G. Randall Johnson

Place of origin/range: Gourie Creek, Rockingham Bay, Queensland

Sex: Unsexed

Age at death: Adult

Specimen: Mounted

Current location of specimen: The Australian Museum, Sydney (Krefft, 1869, p. 349)

Description



Note:

Papuanus.jpg - 19126 Bytes
Drawing by C. von Rosenberg

Casuarius papuanus, Schlegel 1871

Synonym: Casuarius bennetti papuanus (Schlegel 1871)

Papuan Cassowary

Described by: Hermann Schlegel

Published in: Ned. Tijdschr. Dierk., IV, 1873, p. 54.

Collected by: C. von Rosenberg

Place of origin/range: Andai, Vogelkop, N.W. New Guinea

Sex: Female

Age at death: Adult

Specimen: Mounted

Current location of specimen: Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, Leyden. Ref.: L 87001 and L87002 (Female and chick).

Description



Note: This bennetti subspecies has indirectly and through no fault of its own created the most problems of taxonomy and nomenclature. Rothschild made a mistake in his monograph by labelling drawings from Kuelemanns with this name instead of the correct one of C.b. westermanni. Although Rothschild acknowledged this later (Rothschild, 1931, pp. 182-183), almost the entire world has been incorrectly using this name ever since. One well known authority (Davies 2002) went so far as to suggest full species status using this name.

As a separate issue, Rosenberg's imputed place of origin must be questioned. This is the only example coming from the Vogelkop region which does not have a white occipital patch. In fact, no other specimen has ever been taken which matches this type. Rosenberg does not seem to have been much of a hunter and apparently left acquisitions to local people. It is at least likely that Rosenberg acquired this specimen from a trader (Missionary Woelders?) and it had come from somewhere else entirely.

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By J. G. Keulemans

Casuarius picticollis, Sclater 1874

Synonym: Casuarius bennetti picticollis (Sclater 1874)

Described by: Philip Lutley Sclater

Published in: Rep. Brit. Assn., 1874, p.138

Collected by:

Place of origin/range: Milne Bay, Discovery Bay, S.E. New Guinea

Sex: Male

Age at death: Adult

Specimen: Mounted

Current location of specimen: Tring: BMNH 1877.1.27.2

Description


Received May 27th, 1874. Died January 16th, 1876 (Gould, 1877, text to plate 74.) Described in life when immature.
Note: The schooner "Sandfly" under Lt. L.S. Dawson travelled to Milne Bay and Discovery Bay about April 1st-3rd, 1874. Almost certainly the type specimen was obtained then and returned with the ship to Sydney from Possession Bay on April 15th/16th. The leading expedition steamer, "Basilisk" under Capt. John Moresby, continued it's journey in Collingwood Bay and in May 1874 participated in the "discovery" of the "Rhinoceros in New Guinea" which turned out to be based on the finding of Cassowary dung heaps (Nature XI, 1874 pp. 75 and 248).
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By John Gould

Casuarius westermanni, Sclater 1874

Synonym: Casuarius bennetti westermanni, Sclater 1874

Westermann's Cassowary

Described by: Philip Lutley Sclater

Published in: Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1874, p. 248

Collected by: Taken by a missionary [Possibly Woelders], purchased in Amsterdam for the ZSL (Sclater, 1871, p.627.)

Place of origin/range: Mansinam, near Manokwari, Vogelkop, N.W. New Guinea

Sex: Unsexed

Age at death: Adult

Specimen: Skin - Died in the ZSL Gardens 24.1.1876

Current location of specimen: Tring: BMNH 1876.4.24.1

Description



Note: The features of this Cassowary have been erroneously used to describe Casuarius papuanus (Perron, 2010 in Litt.).
The reason for this misapplication lies in a subsequently recognised illustrative error by Lord Rothschild.
This subspecies has now also been listed by some authors as a full species (Davies, 2002), but using the wrong name.

Although there is still some lingering uncertainty due to the political and physical difficulties of population assessment in New Guinea, it is generally accepted that this sub-species is confined to the Bird's Head Peninsular in Irian Jaya. Samples of mDNA from captive and museum specimens are the same and are significantly different to those of other Casuarius bennetti subspecies/populations.

It is also suggested that this subspecies exibits the classic head colouring of Casuarius casuarius and may have been the first to diverge and adapt as Casuarius bennetti.

Casuarus bennetti westermanni - J. G. Keulemans  thumb_Westskin.gif Casuarus bennetti westermanni - Perron Casuarus bennetti westermanni - Halaouate


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Casuarius beccari, Sclater 1875

Synonym: Casuarius casuarius aruensis (Schlegel 1866)

Described by: Philip Lutley Sclater

Published in: Proc. Zool. Soc., London, 1875, p. 87

Collected by: Dr. E. Beccari

Place of origin/range: Wokan Is., Aru Is.

Sex: Male

Age at death: Adult

Specimen: Mounted

Current location of specimen: Museo Civico, Storia Naturale, Genova, Italy

Description


"Adult. Plumage black; casque very high, broad and massive, dark brown; bill long and not pointed. Head and occiput pale greenish blue. Upper part of hind-neck deeper blue, followed by a space of mixed blue and red, producing a somewhat livid pale purple effect. Lower part of hind-neck scarlet. Chin, throat, and fore-neck dark blue. Wattles large, broad and very conspicuously joined at base, of a deep fleshy- red colour, which colour runs up in a narrow line nearly to below the ear. Naked lower sides of neck mixed red and blue. A very large bird, but I have not been able to measure a fully adult dead example." ( Rothschild 1900, p. 117)
Note:

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Salvadori, 1881, plate 2, fig. 7, Type from a drawing by Beccari

Casuarius occipitalis, Salvadori 1875

Synonym: Casuarius unappendiculatus occipitalis (Salvadori 1875)

Described by: Tommaso Adlard Salvadori

Published in: Ann. Mus. Civ., Genoa, VII, 1875, p. 718

Collected by: Odoardo Beccari on April 16th, 1875

Place of origin/range: Jobi (Yapen) Island

Sex: Male

Age at death: Adult

Specimen: Mounted

Current location of specimen: Mus. Civ. Nat. Genoa. (Dr. Capra, February 1954)

Description



Note:
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Occipitalis-Keulemanns

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By Keulemans, certainly syntype

Casuarius tricarunculatus, Beccari 1875

Synonym: Casuarius casuarius tricarunculatus (Beccari 1875)

Described by: Odoardo Beccari

Published in: Ann. mus. civ. Genova, VII, 1875, p. 717

Collected by:

Place of origin/range: Momi,(=Monni) near Warbusi, Geelvink Bay, New Guinea (Sclater, 1876, p. 245)

Sex:

Age at death:

Specimen:

Current location of specimen: Not traced

Description


"Type was a young bird and was apparently lost", Salvadori, 1896, p. 591. It was in captivity on Ternate Is. Molucca and seen by Laglaize, July 1877, Sclater, 1878, p. 214
Note:

Altijugus-syntype.jpg - 12493 Bytes
Syntype

Casuarius altijugus, Sclater 1878

Synonym: Casuarius casuarius tricarunculatus (Beccari 1875)

Described by: Philip Lutley Sclater

Published in: Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, pp. 213-214; partly reprinted in Nature, XVII, 1878, p.375

Collected by: Bruijn

Place of origin/range: Wandammen, Geelvink Bay

Sex: Unsexed

Age at death: Adult

Specimen: Skin

Current location of specimen: Tring: BMNH 1878.3.29.1

Description


"Mr. Sclater exhibited the skin of a fine adult Cassowary, which had recently been acquired for the British Museum. The specimen was labelled "Wandammen, May, 1876" and was believed to have been obtained by the collectors of Herr Bruijn, of Ternate. Wandammen is situated on the western coast of the Bay of Geelvink, near the southern extremity."
Note:
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The real thing

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Casuarius edwardsi, Oustalet 1878

Synonym: Casuarius westermanni edwardsi, Oustalet 1878

Described by: Émile Oustalet

Published in: Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, p. 389

Collected by: Raffray and Maindron

Place of origin/range: Dorey (= Manokwari = Doré), Vogelkop, N.W. New Guinea

Sex: Male

Age at death:

Specimen: Mounted

Current location of specimen: Mus. Nat. d'Hist. Nat., Paris: 1877.2017

Description



Note:
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In Paris

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Casuarius salvadorii, Oustalet 1878

Synonym: Casuarius casuarius tricarunculatus (Beccari 1875)

Described by: Émile Oustalet

Published in: Bull. Assoc. Sci. de France, DXXXIX, 1878, p. 349

Collected by: Probably by Bruijn for Laglaize (Rothschild, 1900, p.121)

Place of origin/range: Wandammen, Geelvink Bay

Sex: Unsexed

Age at death: Adult

Specimen: Mounted

Current location of specimen: Mus. Nat. d'Hist. Nat. Paris: 1877.2016

Description


"Adult. Plumage black; casque high, brownish black; bill thick, long, and not pointed. Head and upper part of hind-neck pale greenish blue, rest of hind-neck scarlet. Naked lower sides of neck blue anteriorly, purplish crimson posteriorly. Chin, throat and fore-neck deep blue. Wattles small and widely separated, base and inner half blue, rest dark fleshy pink. Total length about 1.5m, tarsus 300 to 316mm, bill from gape 150 to 190mm, inner claw about 80mm." (Rothschild 1900, p. 120).
Note:
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Watercolour by Grönvold

Casuarius sclaterii, Salvadori 1878

Synonym: Casuarius casuarius sclaterii (Salvadori 1878)

Sclater's Cassowary

Described by: Tommaso Adlard Salvadori

Published in: Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, XII, 1878, p. 422

Collected by:

Place of origin/range: Coast opposite Cornwallis Is., S.E. New Guinea

Sex: Female

Age at death: Adult

Specimen: Skin and skeleton

Current location of specimen: Tring: BMNH 1877.1.27.3

Description


"Adult. Casque dull brown, very high and much compressed laterally, very thin, and when fully adult curved over to one side. Bill long and stout, black. Wattles very large and long, sometimes over 7 inches, but in the old birds they get torn and damaged either in fighting or when creeping through the thick scrub, so that often they are very short or split into a number of ragged ribbon-like appendages. This is well illustrated in the series of figures od D'Albertis's fine specimens in Count Salvadori's monograph. This is the largest form of the C. casuarius group and also the largest Cassowary, standing, when erect, as much as 6 feet high and the body being fully half as big again as that of an Emu (Dromaeus). Plumage black, head and occiput pale whitish blue. Fore-neck and nape brilliant indigo-blue. Hind-neck of a most intense bright scarlet. Naked lower sides of the neck, posterior 2/3 brilliant scarlet, anterior 1/3 bright blue. Total length about 1600mm, bill from gape 130 to 140, even 145mm, tarsus 280 to 300mm, inner claw 80 to 95mm." (Rothschild 1900, p. 118).
Note: Captured by natives and presented to the ZSL by Sir J. Fergussen when Governor of New Zealand, June 7th, 1875 (Sclater, 1875, p. 527). Died in Gardens December, 1876 (Sclater, 1878, p. 481).
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Casuarius laglaizei, Oustalet 1893

Synonym: Casuarius unappendiculatus occipitalis (Salvadori 1875)

Described by: Émile Oustalet

Published in: Bull. Soc. Philom., Paris (8) V, No. 9, 1893 pp. 1-3

Collected by: M. L. Laglaize in 1887

Place of origin/range: Jobi (Yapen) Island

Sex: Unsexed

Age at death: Adult

Specimen: Mounted

Current location of specimen: Mus. Nat. d'Hist. Nat., Paris: 1887.452

Description



Note: Rothschild, 1900, p. 135, and 1926, p. 27 (probably a melanistic variety of C. occipitalis).

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Casuarius casuarius intensus, Rothschild 1898

Synonym: Casuarius casuarius sclaterii (Salvadori 1878)

Described by: Walter Rothschild

Published in: Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, VIII, 1898, p. 21

Collected by: Purchased from Jamrach by Rothschild.

Place of origin/range: Southern Dutch New Guinea (Rothschild, 1912, p. 52)

Sex: Male

Age at death: Adult

Specimen: Mounted

Current location of specimen: Tring: BMNH 1939.12.9.928

Description


"Male, Adult. The casque differs from that of Casuarius casuarius in being very high and much more erect, the wattles almost entirely blue instead of dark red; the blue of the head and neck uniform and very dark; the orange of the hind-neck much restricted and separated at the upper end from the blue by a black crescent-shaped patch; naked sides of lower neck entirely uniform blue instead of red, bordered anteriorly with blue. Habitat unknown."

"Adult. Casque very high and laterally compressed, dark brown; bill pointed, short, black. Plumage black. Size small. Occiput, nape, upper half of hind-neck, chin, throat, and fore-neck deep brilliant blue. Lower half of hind-neck brilliant scarlet; between the blue and red of the hind-neck an irregular black patch. Naked lower sides of neck of an intense blue. Two wattles on fore-neck medium sized, oval, close together, but separated their entire length, blue outer edge, and a few small spots pink. Bill from gape about 110mm, tarsus 275mm, greatest length of helmet 130mm.". (Rothschild 1900, p. 121).
Note:

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On display

Casuarius loriae, Rothschild 1898

Synonym: Casuarius bennetti picticollis (Sclater 1874)

Described by: Walter Rothschild

Published in: Nov. Zool. V, 1898, p. 513

Collected by: E. Weiske (Hartert, 1927, p. 37)

Place of origin/range: Aroa River, S.E. New Guinea

Sex: Unsexed

Age at death: Adult

Specimen: Mounted

Current location of specimen: Tring: BMNH 1939.12.9.921

Description


Casuarius Loriae sp. nov.
"In the Catalogue of Birds, Vol. XXVII, Count Salvadori describes as the adult bird of Casuarius picticollis a bird collected in the Moroka district by Dr. Loria, and of which I have seen the sketch taken from the freshly killed bird. This sketch shows all the front and sides of the neck red, while in the type of picticollis the neck is blue, with a tiny red spot in the centre of the foreneck. I have now received fine skins of the red-necked species, old and young, from the hills of the Upper Brown River in S.E. New Guinea; and I have also had in the flesh a specimen of true picticollis, of which also there is a living specimen in Berlin. Now I had alive during the last eight years over forty Cassowaries of eleven different forms, and all ages from chicks to adults, and although the shades of yellow, orange, red, and blue of the naked parts change much in intensity (i.e. varying from light to dark), I have never found the colours to be transposed, red or yellow never replacing blue. From this I feel sure that the red-necked form is distinct from the true picticollis, and have much pleasure in naming it after its discoverer. I am further supported in this view by the fact that, as far as the incomplete records concerning the three only known specimens can be trusted, Casuarius picticollis inhabits the low swampy coasts of S. and N.E. New Guine, while my new Casuarius loriae inhabits the hilly country inland of British New Guinea only. The second specimen mentioned in the Catalogue of Birds as from S.E. New Guinea is mentioned erroneously, it not being in the collection under this name, but is probably a Casuarius bennetti."
Note:
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Casuarius philipi, Rothschild 1898

Synonym: Casuarius unappendiculatus philipi (Rothschild 1898)

Described by: Walter Rothschild

Published in: Nov. Zool. V, 1898, p. 418

Collected by: Purchased in Calcutta by the ZSL.

Place of origin/range: East German New Guinea (Rothschild, 1900, p. 139)

Sex: Female

Age at death: Adult

Specimen: Mounted

Current location of specimen: Tring: BMNH 1939.12.9.913

Description


"Casuarius philipi, sp. nov.

This new species is founded on a bird now living in the Zoological Gardens, London, which, though far from adult, being almost brown in plumage, appears to be full grown, and the naked parts are fully coloured. It is closely allied to Casuarius uniappendiculatus, but differs much in colour.
plumage when adult evidently black. Casque as yet undeveloped, pale yellowish horn colour. Throat and fore-neck deep purplish blue. A single small wattle on fore-neck, round and flat, not pear-shaped as in Casuarius uniappendiculatus; upper third of wattle purplish red, rest dark blue. Hairy feathers of neck very thick and reaching high up the neck. Head, occiput, and upperhalf of hind-neck very pale greenish blue; lower half of hind-neck pale orange-yellow. Naked skin on lower sides of neck deep crimson, fading into cherry-red on the edges. Legs very stout and short; body set very low on the legs and very bulky, giving the bird the exact shape Dinornis elephantopus must have had. Hab. Probably East German new Guinea.
Named in honour of Dr. Philip Lutley Sclater."
Note: Described in life when "far from adult".

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Casuarius picticollis hecki, Rothschild 1899

Synonym: Casuarius bennetti hecki (Rothschild 1899)

Described by: Walter Rothschild

Published in: Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, VIII, 1899, p. 49

Collected by:

Place of origin/range: German New Guinea

Sex: Unsexed

Age at death: Adult

Specimen: Mounted

Current location of specimen: Zoological Museum, Berlin: 34694

Description


"This bird bears the same relationship to Casuarius picticollis that Casuarius papuanus edwardsi does to Casuarius papuanus.
The throat and hind-neck are deep indigo-blue. Occiput pale greenish blue. A small round black wattle on the fore-neck. Lower sides of neck dark crimson. Casque and plumage similar to those of Casuarius picticollis.
This form is named in honour of Dr. Heck, Director of the Zoological Garden in Berlin." "The soft parts are painted - probably from a sketch made in life or immediately afterwards - with a large patch of dark red colour below the ear aperture". Prof. E. Stresemann, Berlin, December 1953.
Note:
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Drawing by J.G. Keulemans

Casuarius unappendiculatus aurantiacus, Rothschild 1899

Synonym:

Described by: Walter Rothschild

Published in: Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., VIII. 1899, p. 50 and 56

Collected by:

Place of origin/range: Huon Gulf, Eastern North New Guinea

Sex: Unsexed

Age at death: Adult

Specimen: Mounted

Current location of specimen: Zoological Museum Berlin: B34152

Description


"Face, cheeks and occiput pale sky-blue; throat dark blue. Occipital patch, fore-neck and lower sides of the neck deep redish orange. Casque horney green and much more compressed laterally than in Casuarius unappendiculatus. Long cheek-wattles absent; but the sides of face distended, as in Casuarius philipi."

Described in life while at the Berlin Zoological Gardens
"The painted parts differ from Rothschild's Pl. 32. The blue parts are dark violet blue, the yellow is confined to the dorsal surface of middle neck; the rest of the naked skin, which is painted yellow in Pl. 32, is dark vivaceous in the type. The ventral part of the neck is dark blue, this colour being interrupted by vinaceous coloured transverse bars. The yellow patch on the occiput is less extended laterally than shown on the plate." (Professor Ernst Stresemann, Berlin, December 1953; quoted by RLMW).
Note:

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Casuarius casuarius violicollis, Rothschild 1899

Synonym: Casuarius casuarius aruensis (Schlegel 1866)

Violet-necked Cassowary

Described by: Walter Rothschild

Published in: Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, VIII, 1899, p. 27

Collected by: Purchased by Rothschild from a sailor in Liverpool, " who said it came from the Aru Islands".

Place of origin/range: Probably Trangan Island, Aru Islands. (Rothschild, 1901, p. 360)

Sex: Female

Age at death: Adult

Specimen: Mounted

Current location of specimen: Tring: BMNH 1939.12.9.910

Description


"This apparently undescribed form of Cassowary was most nearly allied to Casuarius casuarius salvadori, but differed conspicuously in the colour of the naked parts and in the very large size, which fully equalled that of Casuarius casuarius australis. Bill much longer and straighter that in the other species of Cassowary. Casque horny brown, green at base. Face and a broad band running down the side of the bill bluish green. Base of lower mandible dark blue, with a yellow line running along one-third of the length of the mandible on each side. Wattles at base of fore-neck very large, round and short, 3 x 2.25 inch, pale blue at base, otherwise pink all over, entirely separate for their whole length but close together. Auricular orifice larger than in any other Cassowary. Throat and fore-neck bright ultra- marine-blue. Occiput and upper hind-neck pale greenish or eau-de-Nil blue. Lower hind-neck brilliant orange-scarlet. Naked lower sides of neck magenta-purple, bordered anteriorly with ultramarine-blue, posteriorly with orange-scarlet; the magenta-purple space deeply carunculated and sharply cut off from the red and blue borders, which are plain and smooth."
Note:
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Water colour by Genlloud

Casuarius maculatus, Rothschild 1900

Synonym: Casuarius bennetti bennetti (Gould 1857)

Described by: Walter Rothschild

Published in: Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond. XV, 1900, p. 148

Collected by:

Place of origin/range: An island west of New Britain (Rothschild, 1907, p. 505)

Sex:

Age at death:

Specimen:

Current location of specimen: "Lost in transit after death" Note by Rothschild on water colour.

Description



Note: Certainly a trade specimen. Very like C.b. hecki.

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Casuarius unappendiculatus rufotinctus, Rothschild 1900

Synonym: Casuarius unappendiculatus aurantiacus (Rothschild 1899)

Described by: Walter Rothschild

Published in: Trans. Zool. Soc., London, XV, 1900, p. 137.

Collected by: Purchased from Mr Cross of Liverpool

Place of origin/range: Between Humboldt Bay and Geelvink Bay (Hartert, 1930, p. 128)

Sex: Female

Age at death: Adult

Specimen: Mounted

Current location of specimen: Tring: BMNH 1939.12.9.927

Description


"General colour black, with a brownish underlay, individual feathers being fawn-brown from half to three quarters of their length, and black terminally; horn, olive-green laterally, and horn-colour supero-anteriorly, which colour is confluent with the top of the bill; posterior base of the horn light blue, the colour being confluent along the sides of the head and extending partly round the eyes; cheek wattles, and lower cheek wattles, intense marine-blue; face, throat and sides of the mandibles, black; mandibles edged with horn colour; throat redish-orange, speckled with blue supero-anteriorly, merging into orange on the lower posterior nape, and into scarlet on the sides of the neck; throat wattle, blue in front and red posteriorly; irides, light brown. Outer and middle toes furnished with short broad nails, while the inner toe has a long carved claw."
Note: Described in life about 3 years old. Kept in Tring Park. Died in ZSL Gardens (Hartert, 1927, p. 35)
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Casuarius rothschildi, Matschie 1901

Synonym: Casuarius unappendiculatus occipitalis (Salvadori 1875)

Described by: Paul Matschie

Published in: Journ. Orn. XLIX, 1901, p. 268

Collected by:

Place of origin/range: Berau Peninsular, N.W. New Guinea (Rothschild, 1901, p. 361)

Sex:

Age at death:

Specimen:

Current location of specimen: None

Description



Note:

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Casuarius casuarius chimaera, Rothschild 1904

Synonym: Casuarius casuarius tricarunculatus (Beccari 1875)

Described by: Walter Rothschild

Published in: Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, XIV, 1904, p. 39

Collected by: Obtained by Rothschild through Hagenbeck, Hamburg (Hartert, 1927, p. 34) and died in captivity.

Place of origin/range: German New Guinea (Rothschild, 1912, p. 52)

Sex: Unsexed

Age at death: Juvenile

Specimen: Mounted

Current location of specimen: Tring: BMNH 1939.12.9.929

Description


"This most extraordinary bird unfortunately died when only a half- grown chick about the size of a turkey-cock, but its characters are so strange that I cannot refrain from describing it. Casque about ¾ inch high, head and neck still covered with down. Head, occiput, orbital region, and fore-neck dull leaden blue; cheeks deep blue, with a yellow patch on the lower mandible. Sides of the neck dull lavender. Hind-neck dull greyish pink. Wattles separate, dull lavender-blue. Whole plumage intense black, not brown as in other young Cassowaries. Habitat unknown".
Note:

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Casuarius doggetti, Rothschild 1904

Synonym: Casuarius unappendiculatus unappendiculatus (Blyth 1860)

Described by: Walter Rothschild

Published in: Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, XIV, 1904, p. 39

Collected by:

Place of origin/range: "probably" Admiralty Is. (Rothschild, 1932, p. 82), "Improbably" (Mayr, 1940, p. 2 + p. 4)

Sex: Unsexed

Age at death: Adult

Specimen: Mounted

Current location of specimen: Tring: BMNH 1939.12.9.926

Description


"Whole head and neck lemon-yellow, lores, orbit, and ear greenish blue. Bill and undeveloped casque yellow, washed with horn-brown. Two pear shaped single caruncles on the fore-neck, one above the other. This species is named after Mr. F. Doggett, of Cambridge, who has charge of the living birds."
Note: Described in life while immature. Died at Tring.
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Casuarius hagenbecki, Rothschild 1904*

Synonym: Casuarius casuarius tricarunculatus (Beccari 1875)

Hagenbeck's Cassowary

Described by: Walter Rothschild

Published in: Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, XIV, 1904, p. 40

Collected by: Purchased by Rothschild from C. Hagenbeck in 1903. Died in Tring Park (Rothschild, 1907, p. 504).

Place of origin/range: "probably" Admiralty Is. (Rothschild, 1932, p. 82), "Improbably" (Mayr, 1940, p. 2 + p. 4)

Sex: Female

Age at death: Immature

Specimen: Mounted

Current location of specimen: Tring: BMNH 1939.12.9.925

Description


"Head and neck yellow, lores black, orbital region green. Two yellow wattles running down the sides of the throat from the angle of the lower mandible, one round yellow caruncle on the fore-neck. The species is named after Mr. Carl Hagenbeck, from whom I obtained the bird."

Special note: Mayr, 1940, p. 1, considered this to be an aberrant form.



Note:* Whereas Mayr thought this was aberrant, I think it is a natural hybrid which occurs where the species (casuarius and unappendiculatus) overlap in the isthmus region between the Arafura Sea and Geelvink Bay, possibly also the lowlands of the southern Birds Head.

Recent photographs of a captive Cassowary on the island of Biak (where the Cassowary is not indigenous) suggest that at least in captivity, but probably in the wild, hybridisation occurs between Casuarius casuarius and Casuarius unappendiculatus. This hybridisation would explain the differences between the two described species (C.c. hagenbecki and C.b. jamrachi) and, since the photographed bird exhibits further differences as well as similarities, it would appear the product displays random affinities to C. casuarius and C. unappendiculatus, perhaps influenced by the male/female configuration or possibly repeated hybridisation. It is unknown if the offspring of hybrids are fertile.

Hagenbecki Hagenbecki Hagenbecki Biak Biak Biak

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Casuarius jamrachi, Rothschild 1904*

Synonym: Casuarius bennetti papuanus (Schlegel 1871)

Jamrach's Cassowary

Described by: Walter Rothschild

Published in: Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, XIV, 1904, p. 40

Collected by: Purchased from W. Jamrach in 1903 (Rothschild, 1907, p. 504)

Place of origin/range: "Probably" Admiralty Is. (Hartert, 1927, p. 26; Rothschild, 1932, p. 82). "Improbably" (Mayr, 1940, p.1)

Sex: Unsexed

Age at death: Adult

Specimen: Mounted

Current location of specimen: Tring: BMNH 1939.12.9.915

Description


Described in life while immature.

"Entire head and neck crimson. Lores, sides of face, and throat blue. Two separate pendent blue wattles on the throat and a large pear- shaped blue caruncle on the lower fore-neck.
This species is named after Mr. William Jamrach, who procured the bird for me."



Note: This is probably not a C. bennetti species, but a C. casuarius-C.unappendiculatus hybrid. I think it is a natural hybrid which occurs where the species (casuarius and unappendiculatus) overlap in the isthmus region between the Arafura Sea and Geelvink Bay, possibly also the lowlands of the southern Birds Head.

Recent photographs of a captive Cassowary on the island of Biak (where the Cassowary is not indigenous) suggest that at least in captivity, but probably in the wild, hybridisation occurs between Casuarius casuarius and Casuarius unappendiculatus. This hybridisation would explain the differences between the two described species (C.c. hagenbecki and C.b. jamrachi) and, since the photographed bird exhibits further differences as well as similarities, it would appear the product displays random affinities to C. casuarius and C. unappendiculatus, perhaps influenced by the male/female configuration or possibly repeated hybridisation. It is unknown if the offspring of hybrids are fertile.

Casuarius jamrachi - Watercolour by J. G. Keulemans 1907 Type Type Biak zoo Biak zoo Biak zoo

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Casuarius unappendiculatus mitratus, Rothschild 1904

Synonym: Casuarius unappendiculatus philipi (Rothschild 1898)

Described by: Walter Rothschild

Published in: Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, XIV, 1904, p. 38

Collected by: Purchased from A. E. Jamrach for Rothschild (Hartert, 1927, p. 35)

Place of origin/range: Unknown

Sex: Unsexed

Age at death: Adult

Specimen: Mounted

Current location of specimen: Tring: BMNH 1939.12.9.920

Description


Described in life when immature.

"This form is at once distinguishable from the others of this species by having a casque shaped like that of Casuarius philipi and Casuarius casuarius - that is, compressed in front and at the sides and depressed posteriorly. The head, face, throat, and occiput, as well as the upper part of hind-neck, deep blue; rest of hind-neck lemon- yellow. Fore-part and sides of neck deep crimson. Caruncle and numerous spots on fore-neck blue. Size very large. Habitat unknown."


Note:

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On display in Tring

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Casuarius unappendiculatus suffusus, Rothschild 1904

Synonym: Casuarius unappendiculatus philipi (Rothschild 1898)

Described by: Walter Rothschild

Published in: Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, XIV, 1904, p. 39

Collected by: Purchased from Jamrach by Rothschild and kept at Tring Park (Rothschild, 1907, p. 504)

Place of origin/range:

Sex: Unsexed

Age at death: Adult

Specimen: Mounted

Current location of specimen: Tring: BMNH 1939.12.9.911

Description


"Similar to Casuarius unappendiculatus rufotinctus, but without the orange occipital patch, the blue colour does not run down the fore- neck to the caruncle, and the red colour of the neck is much more feiry and deeper in shade. Casque green, suffused with black, very high and compressed throughout, as in Casuarius casuarius. Habitat unknown."
Note:
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Casuarius roseigularis, Rothschild 1905

Synonym: Casuarius bennetti papuanus (Schlegel 1871)

Described by: Walter Rothschild

Published in: Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, XV, 1905, p. 32

Collected by: Purchased from Easton, a dealer, by Rothschild.

Place of origin/range:

Sex: Female

Age at death: Immature

Specimen: Mounted

Current location of specimen: Tring: BMNH 1939.12.9.923

Description



Note: Certainly one of the oddest of Rothchild's collection. Due to the fact that the mounted specimen seems to have no palpable wattle, I think this is the reason it was assigned to C. bennetti, but it could be C.u.
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On display

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Casuarius bistriatus, van Oort 1907

Synonym: Casuarius casuarius bistriatus (van Oort 1907)

Described by: Eduard Daniel van Oort

Published in: Notes Leyden Mus. XXIX, 1907, p. 205. and in IBIS 1908, p. 541

Collected by: Taken on the Wichmann Expedition of 1903 for Rotterdam Zool. Gardens.

Place of origin/range: West of Humboldt Bay, probably from Tarfia, Matterer Bay, near Tana Mera, N.

Sex: Male

Age at death: Immature

Specimen: Mounted

Current location of specimen: Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, Leiden: 850

Description



Note:
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Casuarius claudii, Ogilvie-Grant 1911

Synonym: Casuarius bennetti claudii (Ogilvie-Grant 1911)

Grant's Cassowary

Described by: William Robert Ogilvie-Grant

Published in: Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, XXIX, 1911, p. 25

Collected by: C. H. B. Grant

Place of origin/range: Iwaka River, Nassau Range, New Guinea, 4,500 ft.

Sex: Male

Age at death: Adult

Specimen: Mounted

Current location of specimen: Tring: BMNH 1916.5.30.1479

Description


"Adult male. Most nearly allied to C. papuanus, Schlegel, and C. edwardsi, Oustalet, but at once distinguished from both by having the occiput and sides of face entirely black. Between the gape and the ear a patch of deep plum-colour; upper half of the back of the neck electric-blue, shading into violet-blue on the sides and fore-part of the neck, including the throat; lower half of the back of the neck orange-chrome, this colour extending down the upper margin of a bare magenta-coloured area situated on each side of the feathered part of the neck. Iris rich brown; legs and toes olive- brown, lighter olive on the front of the tarsi and joints. Culmen 59 mm.; tarsus 255 mm.; middle toe and claw 165 mm. Habitat, Iwaka River, 4000 - 5000 ft.".
Note: This dwarf species of Cassowary, which is named in honour of Mr. Claude Grant, was met by him on several occassions on the Iwaka River, but only one specimen was obtained. In the Tring museum there is a head of a more adult example of this species, obtained by A.S. Meek on the Oetakwa River, at the base of the Snow mountains, on the 1st of November, 1910.
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Casuarius keysseri, Rothschild 1912

Synonym: Casuarius bennetti hecki (Rothschild, 1899)*

Walter Rothschild

Published in: Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, XXIX, 1912, p. 50

Collected by: Rev. Dr. Christian Keysser

Place of origin/range: Rawlinson Mountains, Huon Peninsula

Sex: Unsexed

Age at death: Adult

Specimen: Mounted

Current location of specimen: Tring: BMNH 1939.12.9.924a

Description



Note: * I suspect this synonym is outdated by recent information and should read Casuarius bennetti keysseri, Rothschild 1912. Recent photos from a captive bird in Port Moresby bear a striking resemblance to C. keysseri and although one should not make rash judgements, it would seem morphologically there is a case for C.b. keysseri.
Casuarius bennetti keysseri - Type Casuarius bennetti keysseri - Groenvold Casuarius bennetti keysseri ?? - Weber

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Casuarius foersteri, Rothschild 1913

Synonym: Casuarius bennetti hecki (Rothschild 1899)

Described by: Walter Rothschild

Published in: Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, XXXIII, 1913, p. 66

Collected by: Reverend Dr. Christian Keysser at 3,240 ft.

Place of origin/range: near Kulungtufu, Huon Peninsula

Sex: Unsexed

Age at death: Adult

Specimen: Mounted

Current location of specimen: Tring: BMNH 1939.12.9.916

Description



Note: Colours taken from a sketch by the collector (Hartert, 1927, p. 37). The live bird below shows a good similarity, if not quite in colour.
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Casuarius goodfellowi, Rothschild 1914

Synonym: Casuarius bennetti westermanni, Sclater 1874

Described by:

Published in: Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, XXXV, 1914, p. 7.

Collected by: A. E. Pratt

Place of origin/range: Jobi (Yapen) Island

Sex: Unsexed

Age at death: Adult

Specimen: Mounted

Current location of specimen: Tring: BMNH 1939.12.9.918

Description



Note: Sent by W. Goodfellow to ZSL. Died in the Gardens in 1917 (Hartert, 1927, p. 36). This is another subspecies which probably should be classified as Casuarius bennetti westermanni. Although this specimen and recently a juvenile captive bird have been reported from Jobi (Yapen), they are the only evidence for a natural population whereas several C.u. occipitalis specimens have been obtained from the island over 150 years. As the latter is a lowland species there is a reasonable case for suggesting they came over by a land bridge during the last Ice Age. Whether a mountain species like C.b. goodfellowi would make the same journey is open to doubt, but not impossible.

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Casuarius casuarius hamiltoni, Mathews 1915

Synonym: Casuarius casuarius johnsonii (Müller 1866)

Described by: G. M. Mathews

Published in: Aust. Av. Rec., II, 1915, p. 124

Collected by:

Place of origin/range: Cairns, North Queensland

Sex:

Age at death:

Specimen:

Current location of specimen: Unknown

Description



Note: Special note: Mathews & Iredale, 1921, p. 7; Mathews, 1927, p. 3. ( synonymous with johnsonii).

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Casuarius casuarius lateralis, Rothschild 1925

Synonym: Casuarius casuarius lateralis, Rothschild 1925

Described by: Walter Rothschild

Published in: Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, XLVI, 1925, p. 30

Collected by: Purchased from W. Jamrach by Rothschild in 1922.

Place of origin/range: North coast of new Guinea

Sex: Male

Age at death: Adult

Specimen: Skin

Current location of specimen: Tring: BMNH 1939.12.9.934

Description



Note:
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Casuarius bicarunculatus intermedius, Rothschild 1928

Synonym: Casuarius casuarius tricarunculatus (Beccari 1875)

Described by: Walter Rothschild

Published in: Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, XLIX, 1928, p. 10

Collected by:

Place of origin/range: probably Aru Is. ("mere supposition", Mayr, 1940, p. 2).

Sex: Female

Age at death: Adult

Specimen: Mounted

Current location of specimen: Tring: BMNH 1939.12.9.930

Description


"Adult somewhat intermediate between Casuarius bicarunculatus salvadorii and Casuarius bicarunculatus bicarunculatus. The wattles instead of being on the sides of the neck, as in bicarunculatus, are in front, but almost double as wide apart as in salvadorii, and end in a spatulate and more round appendage.
Type, an adult bird now living in the Zoological Gardens, London, in which there are, however, still the remains of the brown plumage on the lower rump. The sides of the neck are violet as in Casuarius casuarius violicollis of Trangan Island.
A second much younger bird, also in the Zoological Gardens, has almost entirely brown plumage and the wattles are much smaller and with much less spatulate ends. However, they are separated to the same extent as in the adult.
Habitat. Probably the two larger islands of Kobroon and Trangan, Aru Islands."
Note:
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Casuarius rogersi, Rothschild 1928

Synonym: Casuarius bennetti westermanni, Sclater 1874

Described by: Walter Rothschild

Published in: Bull.Brit. Orn. Club, XLVIII, 1928, p. 87

Collected by: Purchased from Rogers of Liverpool by Rothschild. Sent to ZSL Gardens in March, 1928 and died there.

Place of origin/range: Probably isolated coastal range east of Geelvink Bay.

Sex: Female

Age at death: Adult

Specimen: Skin

Current location of specimen: Tring: BMNH 1939.12.9.914

Description



Note: The second sketch below takes some believing, but it puts a new dimension on development. Perhaps it is diet related?
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Sketch when it was first received

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Casuarius unappendiculatus multicolor, Le Soeuf 1930

Synonym: Casuarius unappendiculatus philipi (Rothschild 1898)

Described by: Albert Sherbourne Le Soeuf

Published in: Emu, XXIX, 1930, p. 242

Collected by:

Place of origin/range: Probably 30 miles west of Rabaul, New Britain, Mandated Territory, New Guinea, 1925

Sex:

Age at death:

Specimen:

Current location of specimen: Probably in Australian Museum, Sydney

Description



Note: Must be a trade specimen because nothing on New Britain can be of natural origin and only C. bennetti has ever been recorded there in the wild.
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Casuarius casuarius grandis, Rothschild 1937

Synonym: Casuarius casuarius bistriatus (van Oort 1907 )

Described by: Walter Rothschild

Published in: Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, LVII, 1937, p. 121

Collected by: Obtained by the ZSL from Paignton Zool. Gardens about 1930. Died in London in April, 1942.

Place of origin/range: North coast of Dutch New Guinea.

Sex: Female

Age at death: Adult

Specimen: Skin and skeleton.

Current location of specimen: Tring: Skin BMNH 1942.4.14.1 and skeleton BMNH 1942.4.14.2

Description


" C.c. grandis has the largest wattles of any Cassowary and, unlike ist nearest allies, C.c. altijugus Sclater, 1878 ( Wandammen), and C.c. sclateri Salvadori, 1878 (S.E. New Guinea), both of which have pink wattles, it has the wattles and chords of brilliant scarlet. The occiput and head sky-blue; cheeks and upper sides of neck dark blue; lower sides of neck violet-purple; the back of neck has the red much higher up than any other Cassowary, the lower half feiry orange-red, the upper half crimson-scarlet. The wattles are placed very close together and edgeways, not flat on the neck as in its allies.

Distribution:- The specimen is said to have come from the north coast of Dutch New Guinea.
Type:- Adult. This bird has lived in Mr. Whitley's menagerie for many years and is still in excellent health.
Measurements of type:- Length of wattles 9 inches.
Remarks:- This subspecies belongs to that section of C. casuarius which is confined to the mainland of New Guinea, and has the two chords of the fore-neck running from the wattles to the under-mandible pink in the adult, whereas in Casuarius casuarius, L., 1758, from Ceram, the Australian Cassowary, and the forms from the Aru Islands these chords remain more or less blue like the fore-neck."


Note:

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Casuarius papuanus shawmayeri, Rothschild 1937

Synonym: Casuarius bennetti shawmayeri (Rothschild 1937)

Described by: Walter Rothschild

Published in: Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, LVII, 1937, p. 120

Collected by: Collected by F. Shaw-Mayer at 4,500 ft. on December 30th, 1932

Place of origin/range: Arau district of Kratke Mts., Central Highlands, New Guinea.

Sex: Female

Age at death: Adult

Specimen: Mounted

Current location of specimen: Tring: BMNH 1939.12.9.932

Description


"Casque depressed behind, black; occiput black; back of head and upper half of hind-neck and the fore-neck bright blue; lower half of hind-neck orange; a large patch on cheek and upper parts of side of neck bright mauve; naked sides of neck bright mauve, bordered on hinder side with a band of orange running into orange of hind-neck.

Colour of soft parts:- Iris brown; bill black with dark horn at tip; feet and claws light horn colour. Stomach contained large fruits. Type:- Female adult, Arau district of Kratke Mountains, Mandated East New Guinea, 4500 ft., December 30th, 1932, no. 454 (collector F. Shaw Mayer).

Weight of type:- 80.5 lbs.

Remarks:- Mr. Shaw Mayer also brought back from the same district the skull and bill of a male; the colour of this male was like that of the above-described female, according to the collector.
A third specimen, a younger male, from the Buntibasa district of the Kratke Mountains, of which Mr Shaw Mayer could preserve only the front half, differs in having the mauve cheek-patch much reduced and in bearing an orange spot on fore-neck; the mauve lower sides if the neck are broadly and completely boardered with orange. The specimen probably represents a colour phase of C. p. shawmayeri. This very distinct race seems to go far to prove, by the combination of the colours of the head and neck, that the hecki-keyseri-papuanus groups of forms are all subspecies of one species."
Note: It is a little odd to read Rothschild still using the papuanus name six years after his article (Novitates Zoologicae XXXVI 1931 pp. 182-183 ) in which he states that papuanus was mistakenly used in his monograph. No wonder the use is so entrenched. More on this can be read at my article Bennetti.pdf

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